Doctor’s Viewpoint of Whole Food; Etiology of Mesenchymal Diseases; Acidophilus Milk in Therapy of Infantile Diarrhea
Contents in in this issue:
- “A Doctor’s Viewpoint of Whole Food, Part II,” by Dr. Yellowlees,
- “Immunity and Hypersensitivity as Factors in Etiology of Mesenchymal Diseases,”
- “Acidophilus Milk in the Therapy of Infantile Diarrhea.”
The following is a transcription of the August 1966 issue of Dr. Royal Lee’s Applied Trophology newsletter, originally published by Standard Process Laboratories.
A Doctor’s Viewpoint of Whole Food, Part II
By Dr. Yellowlees
(See Part I in the July 1966 issue of Applied Trophology.)
My own feeling is that fats do not play such an important part and that, when the final truth is exposed, this disease will be yet another example of—to quote Cleave— “saccharin disease,”15—is a condition due to diets over-heavy with refined carbohydrate.
If dietary factors cause degeneration of arterial walls, it might be expected that other tissues in the same patient would also be affected by degenerative processes.
Diet, Stress and Heredity
Occasionally, studies of individual cases for which the GP is so well placed may be as revealing as the wider surveys of the epidemiologist.
I followed the cases of two men with serious degeneration of the intervertebral discs of their spines and both later developed fatal coronary artery blockage. I believe that the causes of these two quite separate conditions is the same dietary in adequacy. Degeneration of intervertebral discs seems to be another condition on the increase, and it is my opinion that the main cause is inadequate or unbalanced intake of minerals and possibly lack of protein or vitamin factors.
Another thing I have noticed is the frequency with which, on examining many of the people who succumb to coronary thrombosis while on holiday in our practice area, the tell-tale scar of a gastrectomy—that is the operation to “cure” duodenal ulcer—is found in the same patients. This is an impression, with no figures to back it up, but Fry,16 in his practice near London, has given statistical evidence to suggest that there is an association between peptic ulcer and coronary thrombosis.
“But wait,” the protagonists of psychosomatic medicine will say at this point, “the association, if it exists, between these two diseases is because both were caused by the same emotional stress.”
My reply would be that the body and mind were built to withstand both physical and mental stress. I sometimes wonder if some people in this Britain of 1965 couldn’t do with a bit more stress! I think of the parable of the two houses, one built on sand, the other on rock. When the storms of stress blow hard, the inadequately fed organism, nourished on the deprived foodstuffs of today, will wear out or collapse. An adequately nourished organism will stand.
Probably hereditary factors determine which system or organ will breakdown first when the individual is exposed to adverse dietary factors.
Two bachelor brothers lived on a hill farm. They were not over-intelligent, and the squalor of their kitchen was terrible to see. Their feeding arrangements consisted in getting from the weekly van what could satisfy hunger with the minimum of trouble, and white bread with jam, tea, tinned milk, and tinned meat seemed to be the main items on the menu. Two years ago, one brother developed a painful leg. He was found to have profound anemia and massive hemorrhages typical of scurvy. But the other brother was unaffected, possibly his metabolism was better adapted to utilizing the slender supplies of available vitamin C.
These two brothers might be termed modern-day primitives, their small farm from which they seldom strayed is surrounded by luxuriant growth of green things, mostly nettles and other weeds. What a sad reflection that they had lost even the instinctive sense to cultivate a few potatoes or turnips.
Not far away by the road, an old lady almost ninety sits by her fire and speaks, as is usual in the aged, of the days gone by, deplores—again as old people do—present-day customs. We can ignore her opinions, if we like, as being the rambling of senescence, but her account of the nutrition of her childhood is interesting. “We had plenty of everything on our farm,” she has said to me. “We had cows and sheep and hens. We made lovely cheeses and lots of fresh butter.”
The Remedy Is Too Simple
The other day I came across a remarkable echo of “The weakness of the remedy lies in its simplicity.” James Lind, the Portsmouth Naval Surgeon who had suggested that scurvy among sailors could be prevented by a ration of lemon juice, wrote, “Some persons cannot be brought to believe that a disease so fatal can be prevented by such easy means. They would have more faith in an elaborate composition dignified with the title of an anti-scorbatic golden elixir or the like.”
Although we have seen in recent decades a tremendous expansion of human knowledge of material things, I doubt if we have matched our increase in knowledge with a deepening of our wisdom.
- M.J., 17, 10, 1964.
- Reports of the Department of Health for Scotland, HMSO Edin., 1956.
- Reports of the Department of Health for Scotland, HMSO Edin., 1964.
- National Insurance Acts 1946/64. Report by Government Actuary on Third Quinquennial Review, HC 20, HMSO London, 1964.
- “Challenge to Survival.” M.J., 3, 7, 1965.
- Harold Dodd. M.J., 21, 11, 1964.
- Sir Dugald Baird. Obstetrics and Gynecology. Livingstone, 1962.
- Hipsley, Eben H. “Dietary Fiber and Pregnancy ” B.M.J., 12, 8, 1963.
- Jackson, Dr. Mary. Journal of Medical Women’s Federation.
- Davidson, Meiklejohn, and Passmore. Human Nutrition and Dietetics. Livingstone, 1959.
- Hibbard, M.H., and Hibbard, D.H. M.J., 7, 12, 1963.
- “Prophylactic Iron and Folic Acid in ” B.M.J., 14, 11, 1964.
- Cleave, T.L. Fat Consumption and Coronary Disease. John Wright & Sons, 1957.
- Cohen, Bailey, and Poznanski. Lancet, 23, 12, 1961.
- Cleave, T.L. Peptic Ulcer. John Wright & Sons, 1962.
- Fry, J. “Peptic Ulcer a Profile,” B.M.J., 26, 9, 1964.
- McCarrison, Sir Robert. Nutrition and Health. Faber & Faber.
—Reprinted in part from “Mother Earth,” The Journal of the Soil Association, Vol. 14, No. 1, Haughley, Suffolk, England.
Immunity and Hypersensitivity as Factors in Etiology of Mesenchymal Diseases
Excerpts from Postgraduate Medicine, Special Issue, Connective Tissue Diseases, by Peterson and Good, p. 422, May 1962.
Hypersensitivity associated with the production of cross-reacting antibodies may be the basis for many diseases. So-called autoimmune diseases, characterized by the presence of antibodies against the patient’s own tissues, may involve cross-reacting antibodies in some instances. For example, in lupus erythematosus the antibodies directed against the host cell nuclei may have been elicited by an exogenous antigen rather than the host’s cell nuclei.
Auto-Antibodies to Isolated Antigens
There are tissues in the body that are essentially isolated from immunologically competent cells under normal conditions. If such tissues are exposed by trauma or disease, antibodies against them may be produced. Such antibodies may merely reflect this unusual exposure and may have no other significance, or they may result in damage to the tissue.
Sympathetic ophthalmia is a disease that seems to illustrate this type of auto-antibody.12 A penetrating injury to one eye exposes tissue previously well isolated from the rest of the body. Such tissue is not recognized as “self” by the antibody-producing cells, but rather is considered foreign material. Antibodies and hypersensitivity are therefore produced, which in turn may damage the other eye. Such a situation may also obtain where other auto-antibodies are found, e.g., antibodies against the heart following a myocardial infarction or after cardiotomy,13 antibodies against thyroglobulin following thyroid infection or surgery, and antibodies against the pancreas in patients with cystic fibrosis of the pancreas or chronic pancreatitis.14 There are many similar examples.
In experimental animals, central nervous system disease or peripheral neuritis simulating post-infectious leuko-encephalitis or Guillain-Barre syndrome may be produced by injecting brain or peripheral nerve tissue along with immunologic adjuvants at a parenteral site.15,16 In these latter instances, the role of the antibody in causing the disease is seriously questioned; whether or not antibody perpetuates disease is even more difficult to answer. It has been suggested that cellular immunity, rather than circulating antibody, is responsible for some of these diseases.17
Auto-Antibodies Resulting from Altered Antigenicity of Host Tissues
Although the body generally will not make antibodies against its own tissues, it appears that slight modification of the antigenic character of tissue may cause it to appear foreign to the immune system and thus a fair target for antibody production. Schwentker and Comploier18 proposed that the streptococcal toxin causes damage to renal tissue and consequent release into the general circulation of a protein which acts as a foreign protein, thereby stimulating production of an antibody to kidney protein. Circulating anti-kidney antibodies have been related to both clinical and experimental renal disease; they are present in the serum of patients with various renal conditions19 and have been shown to result in experimental renal disease.20 Whether or not such a mechanism causes human renal disease is unknown, but the immunologic implications of existing data are strong.
Infections in the colon may alter the gastrointestinal mucosa sufficiently to induce formation of the anti-colon antibodies found in patients with ulcerative colitis.
From these considerations, it seems entirely possible that certain human diseases have as their basis an immunologic reaction to host tissues made antigenic by infectious processes.
We are here discussing the infinite complications and ramifications of disease that can develop. To remedy the ravages of such malnutrition, ill-advised drugs and poisons in huge dosages are used, which are often injected directly into our long-suffering bloodstream by medical doctors. Patients “would be healthier if drugs had never been discovered,” to quote the famous Boston physician, Oliver Wendell Holmes, and who also said: “If all the medicines were thrown into the sea, it would be better for mankind, but all the worse for the fishes.”
The references below apply only to quoted excerpt from Postgraduate Medicine, May 1962.
- Theodore, F.H., and Schlossman, A. Ocular Allergy. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins Company, p. 347, 1958.
- Gery, I., Davies, A.M., and Ehrenfeld, E.N. “Heart-Specific Antibodies.” Lancet 1:471–472, 1960.
- Murray, M.J., and Thal, A.P. “Clinical Significance of Circulating Pancreatic Antibodies.” Int. Med., 53:548–555, 1960.
- Waksman, B.H., and Adams, R.D. “Allergic Neuritis: An Experimental Disease of Rabbits Induced by the Injection of Peripheral Nervous Tissue and Adjuvants.” Exper. Med., 102:213–236, 1955.
- Kabat, E.A., Wolf, A., and Bezer, A.E. “The Rapid Production of Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis in Rhesus Monkeys by Injection of Heterologous and Homologous Brain Tissue with Adjuvants.” Exper. Med., 85:117–130, 1947.
- Waksman, B.H. “A Comparative Histopathological Study of Delayed Hypersensitive Reactions.” In Wolstenholme, G.E.W., and O’Connor, M. (Editors). Cellular Aspects of Immunity, Boston, Little, Brown & Company, pp. 280–322.
- Schwentker, F.D. and Comploier, C. “Production of Kidney Antibodies by Injection of Homologous Kidney Plus Bacterial Toxins.” J. Exper. Med., 70:223–230, 1939.
- Kramer, N.C., Watt, F., Howe, J.H., and Parrish, A.E. “Circulating Antihuman Kidney Antibodies in Human Renal Disease.” Am. J. Med., 30:39–45, 1961.
- Masugi, M., Sato, Y., Murasawa, S., and Tomizuka, Y. “Ueber die Experimentelle Glomerulonephritis durch das Specifische Antinierenserum.” Jap. Path. Soc., 22:614–628, 1932.
- Broberger, O., and Perlman, P. “Auto-Antibodies in Human Ulcerative Colitis.” Exper. Med., 110:657–674, 1959,
Acidophilus Milk in the Therapy of Infantile Diarrhea
In the paper are presented the results achieved in the application of acidophilus milk in dyspeptic infants infected with pathogenic E. coli G.E.I. In 21 out of 28 cases dealt with from the University Children Hospital in Zagreb has been isolated E. coli O111 seven strains proved resistant to all antibiotica of the daily praxis; two strains were poorly resistant (+) only to aureomycin; one strain (+) to aureomycin and terramycin; two strains (+) to aureomycin and chlormycetin; and one strain (+) to chloromycetin. Besides two strains that were poorly sensitive (+) to aureomycin and chlormycetin, all the other serotypes of E. coli O86–O114 and O127 proved sensitive (+ +) to one antibioticum at least.
The pathogenic E. coli G.E.I. disappeared from the lumen of the gastrointestinal tract of the dyspeptic infants within one to five days after application of acidophilus milk. Owing to the rich contents of the acidophilus milk in vitamins and other soluble lactates of phosphor, calcium and iron, easily resorbed by the organism, the infants recovered rapidly and—as observed by clinicians—gained weight quicker and more copiously than other infants of a control group.
—Von K. Tomic-Karovic and J. Famiek, Aus dem Immunologischen Institut., Zagreb. Translation of summary reported in Ann. Pediatric., 199: 625–634, 1962