Applied Trophology, Vol. 3, No. 10
(October 1959)

Refined Oils, Cholesterol, and Glandular Functions

The following is a transcription of the October 1959 issue of Dr. Royal Lee’s Applied Trophology newsletter, originally published by Standard Process Laboratories.

Also in this issue:

  • Symptoms of Potassium Deficiency
  • Tip of the Month (Tic Douloureux)
  • News Item (Fatigue and Vitamin C)
  • High Points of Cataplex C

Refined Oils, Cholesterol, and Glandular Functions

Cholesterol is an important tissue constituent; therefore, it must not be looked upon as a substance to be avoided. If test animals are fed cholesterol, they produce less of it in their livers in a corresponding amount.1

The literature is full of references that show that cholesterol is a precursor for hormones and that it is reduced or increased in the blood when specific hormones are administered. For example, thyroxine, with adrenaline, reduces blood cholesterol, as does pituitary thyrotropin, even if the thyroid is absent. In Addison’s disease (tubercular infection of the adrenals), the implantation of cholesterol into the tissues has been followed by good results. In this disease the blood cholesterol may drop to a very low point.

It seems that a high blood cholesterol generally follows nutritional castration. We refer here to the glandular atrophy and inhibition that takes place from the use of refined foods, first described by McCarrison in 1921.2 He showed that the first gland to become damaged was the thymus, with the adrenals, sex glands, and thyroid following.

Since cholesterol in food reduces the amount produced by the body, it is obvious that persons have high blood cholesterol for some reason other than too much in the food intake.1 The real cause is in all probability dietary deficiency of the natural cholesterol metabolizers in natural, unrefined vegetable oils.2

Dr. Lester M. Morrison has reported tests on patients with high blood cholesterol in which soybean lecithin reduced the cholesterol levels 41 percent in a series of twelve patients.3 His dosage of 36 grams of lecithin daily is very high—due no doubt to the fact that he used refined lecithin. Unrefined oils were very much more effective in other tests. In one test eggs fried in unrefined peanut oil caused a progressive drop in blood cholesterol.4 In these tests the unsaturated fatty acid component (vitamin F) was proved to be the specific factor that prevents a high blood cholesterol.

In careful tests on human subjects, the use of refined corn oil has been shown to increase the blood cholesterol rather than reduce it.10 This is just another example of the mistake often made in refining a food component—the most potent parts are refined out. Cephalin is found in natural oils along with lecithin. However, the cephalin is far more active in lowering blood cholesterol than the lecithin. Both are (chemically) unsaturated fatty acids, combined with choline in the case of lecithin and with colamine in the case of cephalin, plus phosphoric acid.

The unsaturated fatty acid, if biologically active, is vitamin F. What makes such a fatty acid active we do not know. But we do know that it will have activity if obtained strictly from fresh, unoxidized glandular fat, such as kidney fat, or vegetable oils that are nonrancid.

That brings us to the subject of synthetic fats, which have taken over the food fat market, from oleomargarine to phony ice cream, to say nothing of the tonnage of fraudulent “vegetable” shortenings, all of which are made from rancid oils that could never be used on their merits in food products.

Moldy peanuts that cannot be sold for peanut butter go into the oil mill, to come out as the finest “refined” peanut oil. Refining always destroys or removes any vitamins that might have survived the rancidity that is always present in stale oil seeds.

The widespread deficiency of vitamin F was demonstrated years ago to be a probable cause of prostate disease, most cases of prostate enlargement being relieved by the use of a potent form of this vitamin.5

It also was shown that the most important blood change following this deficiency was a lowering of the blood iodine level, which was quickly relieved by vitamin F administration.5 It was further shown that this vitamin is linked with thyroid, since the blood iodine level is an index of thyroid activity. The thyroid lowers blood cholesterol, but if vitamin F is not available in sufficient amounts, the thyroid secretions are toxic. It seems very evident that the normal reaction of the thyroid gland under these conditions is to hold back its hormones, for as the vitamin F is supplied, the blood iodine immediately rises.

We believe the F is essential to the liver synthesis of the phospholipids cephalin and lecithin and that these phospholipids are wrappers, or protective factors (along with vitamin E), of the cell-determinant protomorphogens.

We know that one of the functions of the prostate is to supply the fluid to carry the male germ cells, and since these cells are heavily loaded with protomorphogens, the prostate secretion would be expected to be carrying the protective factors, the phospholipids, including the vitamin F. This explains the reaction of swelling of the prostate in vitamin F deficiency. A starved gland either atrophies or enlarges compensatively under these circumstances. Note how goiter is caused by iodine and vitamin deficiency. (We find the vitamin D complex more important than iodine in toxic goiter.)

Dr. Matthews in his book on biochemistry says purified cephalin will not cause blood coagulation, while normal cephalin does. The pure cephalin has lost its protomorphogen, the determinant that converts the blood protein (liquid) to a solid. (Blood clot protein is chemically similar to connective tissue.) This is the “blueprint” effect of the chromosome, the final conversion of food protein into some specific body tissue.

Confirmation of this conclusion is found in the fact that thyroid gland removal causes the blood iodine of male dogs to drop far more than in females. The male has a far greater number of germ cells to provide with protomorphogen, and the thyroid may be considered the catalyzer for both wrapping and unwrapping the protomorphogen, via its control of lipase.7 It is very likely that the control of basal metabolism by the thyroid is by means of this control of the available “blueprint” activating substance, protomorphogen.

In cancer-susceptible animals, this control of growth by thyroid and iodine influence was shown to be disrupted.8 The key to the control of cancer may possibly be found here. In fact, the Annual Review of Biochemistry of 1949, page 422, predicted that vitamin F might be performing a protective function against carcinogenic compounds. Not that we suggest vitamin F as a cancer remedy at this moment, but it is important to recognize that cancer is a disease found only where refined and synthetic foods are used. Dr. Albert Schweitzer, the celebrated African missionary doctor, says cancer was unknown in his central Africa station until civilized foods were introduced. This is a situation cited again and again by other investigators. Just what is cancer other than unguided proliferation without plan or determinant blueprints? To get a radish, you must plant radish seeds. The cell seeds are protomorphogens in assemblies of cytomorphogens.

X-rays and nitrogen mustard are protomorphogen unwrappers, which explains why they have some anticarcinogenic effect. However, the physiological unwrapper has yet to be found. Overdoing the unwrapping, as X-ray does, can reverse this anticarcinogenic effect.

Since free, unwrapped protomorphogens are highly toxic, it is of interest to learn that snake venoms are enzymes that destroy the protomorphogen wrapping (the phospholipids) and release the free protomorphogen. Nature is efficient in her ways. The snake venom simply unlocks the poison already present, like the key to Pandora’s box. When you burn your finger, you release a little of the same poison, since the melting point of the phospholipid cholesterol complex is just above body temperature.

Recently it has been shown that chlorophyll in its natural state (fat-soluble, containing magnesium) protects us against the dangers of a high blood cholesterol. No atherosclerosis or kidney lesions appeared in test animals given more organic magnesium, even when their blood cholesterol remained high.10

Water-soluble chlorophyll cannot accomplish this effect, since its magnesium has been removed, with copper and sodium put in its place. Water-soluble chlorophyll, a refined, modified product, has certain merits but cannot take the place of the natural, fat-soluble complex, which contains a load of vitamins (A, E, K, and F).

The sex hormones seem to have the specific function of earmarking protomorphogen particles released from the tissues by thyroid for delivery to the respective male and female gonad, where the germ cells for the propagation of the race are prepared. Confirming this hypothesis, testosterone and estrogen both have been found to relieve symptoms of thyrotoxicosis.9 Evidently, thyroid activity in excess becomes toxic by reason of too much free protomorphogen.

These remarks indicate how the study of protomorphology opens up new concepts in endocrinology. Protomorphology does for endocrine science what the atomic theory did for chemistry—it affords the means of interpreting and classifying facts otherwise incomprehensible.


  1. Breusch, Fritz L. Biol. Chem., 124, 1:151–158, 1938.
  2. McCarrison, Sir Robert. Studies in Deficiency Disease, 1921.
  3. Morrison, Lester M., MD. Geriatrics, 13:12, 1958.
  4. Science News Letter, pp. 159–161, April 28, 1956.
  5. Lee Foundation Report No. 1, 1942.
  6. Vitale, J.J. Meeting of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology, Chicago, April 15–19, 1957. See also Gordonoff, med. Wochenschr., 19:459, 1933.
  7. Crotti, Andre. Thyroid and Thymus, p. 42. Lea & Febiger, 1938.
  8. Science News Letter, p.133, March 2, 1957.
  9. Korenchevsky and Hall. Nature, 147:777, 1941; Okie et al. Int. College of Surgeons, 18:164, 1952.
  10. Keys, A., et al. Science 112:78, 1950.

Symptoms of Potassium Deficiency

American Academy of General Practice, Vol. 9, pp. 79–84, January 1954: Excerpts from Potassium Deficiency, by William M. Nicholson, MD, and Howard H. Herring, MD, Duke University School of Medicine, Durham, NC.

The symptoms of hypokalemia are indeed similar to those of hyperkalemia and do not afford an accurate diagnostic aid. However, by the recognition of the many factors involved, one may suspect hypokalemia, and more definitive steps may be taken to establish the diagnosis.

The first symptoms that occur are malaise and a sense of not feeling altogether well. Since hypokalemia may follow or may be associated with other illnesses, the symptom of malaise may not seem important to either the patient or the physician. Muscular weakness is almost invariably noted and, when present with malaise, may lead one to suspect hypokalemia. In instances of chronic potassium deficiency, these symptoms may persist for many months and are frequently interpreted as being due to emotional instability. Vague muscle and abdominal aches and pains are sometimes associated with low potassium, and again the physician may not attach much significance to this complaint.

In the more severe and acute instances of hypokalemia, muscular paralysis may be present. The severe muscular weakness and paralysis usually begins in the muscles of the extremities and later involves the muscles of respiration.

Infrequently patients may complain of difficulty in swallowing, although objective manifestations such as regurgitation and choking are only rarely observed.

There are no characteristic signs demonstrated upon physical examination, although the heart sounds may be muffled and distant, and there may be hypoactive tendon reflexes.

Tip of the Month (Tic Douloureux)

Tic douloureux has often been found to respond to the use of vitamin B12. Because B12 can be used in high doses without danger, this distressing condition should be experimentally treated with high doses of this vitamin. If B12 deficiency is responsible, prompt improvement will follow.

News Item (Fatigue and Vitamin C)

Dr. G. di Macco of the University of Torino (Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper., 18:36) tells us that exercise promotes a urinary drop in vitamin C.

The conclusion follows that lassitude and fatigue may be a warning that we need more of this vitamin. (We have been telling the world since 1930 that natural vitamin C products were fine foods for fatigue, and the tired heart was most favorably impressed by an enhancement of supply.)

Try it for every patient who tires out before the day is over. You will be gratified at the number who appreciate the advice.

High Points of Standard Process Nutritional Adjuncts

Cataplex C (vitamin C complex): This product supplies natural ascorbic acid in the combined form, as ascorbigen, along with assimilable iron and essential trace minerals. It contains the enzyme tyrosinase, which has an unmatched ability to promote the activity of the ascorbic acid factors.

The vitamin J factor therein maintains the oxygen-carrying power of the blood and is specific in anti-infective activity. The vitamin P factor increases vascular integrity, and the vitamin K factor is essential for production of prothrombin and fibrin for blood coagulation.

Vitamin C complex has also been reported to be invaluable in counteracting the side effects of antibiotics, in increasing the ability of the body to use ketones, in controlling diabetic gangrene, and in taking the load off the heart. It also produces dramatic results in high-grade infections such as pneumonia by increasing the dosage.


Heather Wilkinson

Heather Wilkinson is Senior Editor at Selene River Press.

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