Interrelationships of the Vitamins; A Few Facts on Vitamins; Cholesterol and Magnesium; Migraine and Meniere’s Disease
Contents in this issue:
- “Interrelationships of the Vitamins,” by John J. Miller, PhD,
- “A Few Facts on Vitamins,”
- “Relation Between Cholesterol and Magnesium,”
- “Migraine and Meniere’s Disease.”
The following is a transcription of the April 1964 issue of Dr. Royal Lee’s Applied Trophology newsletter, originally published by Standard Process Laboratories.
Interrelationships of the Vitamins
John J. Miller, PhD
The specificity of all the vitamins has long been stressed. In fact, extreme emphasis has been placed upon the hypothesis that the animal body needed certain vitamins to prevent the occurrence of specified diseases, because that was possibly the only way in which to prove the necessity for vitamins at all, or at least to convince the public that they were of definite value.
Naturally, unless scientists could show that the lack of vitamin A produced certain characteristic abnormalities, and that the disease so developed could be cured by again adding vitamin A to the food, it would hardly have been believed by the laymen that the vitamin story was anything but surmise and guesswork. And so many people have come to believe that each vitamin has a separate and distinctive role to play in animal metabolism and nutrition, and that no other vitamin is involved in the prevention or relief of a given ailment.
This is true only, of course, to a limited extent, for the pathological effects of vitamin deficiency are so varied in nature and often so similar in manifestations—regardless of whether it is vitamin A that is involved, or vitamin B1, or vitamin D, or any of the others—that they seem to work together for good if they are properly available or to aggravate the situation in multiple fashion if there is vitamin want. Moreover, the influence of the vitamins may be, in some cases, more indirect than direct. Their activity may be effective in the tissues only through the organs, or vice versa. They may first act upon the blood, then upon the glands, and through them upon other parts of the body, stimulating the production of hormones and correcting the imbalance of the cell fluids.
The effects of the vitamins are widespread, intricate, and almost unlimited, as far as reaching the ultimate parts of the organism is concerned. And so, when the physician or the scientist speaks of “specificity,” he is thinking perhaps of only one or two effects or symptoms, out of the hundreds of minor changes that can follow the deficiency, or therapy, of any one vitamin.
It is not surprising, therefore, that the “interrelationships of the vitamins” is a new concept to many, and one which is apt to be very confusing to the type of mind that wants everything to be clearly defined. That kind of person may seriously doubt the efficacy of vitamin therapy when it is most needed, simply because of the complicated nature of the problem.
It is vital therefore that the complexity of the animal organism itself be emphasized and the possible multiplicity of the influences of the vitamins be stressed. Certainly, it should be kept constantly in mind that the deficiencies are commonly of more than one vitamin and that they are simultaneous, so the supplementary nature of the vitamin influences needs to be utilized on all possible occasions.
A few brief examples of the interrelationship of the vitamins may be pointed out at this time:
Doubling dosage of vitamin B1 plus B2, while holding all other vitamins to a given level, greatly increases the weights of test animals. (Cross et al. Biochem. J., v. 40, p. 458, 1946.)
In avitaminosis A, the thiamin requirement is increased. Also, thiamin administration delays the symptoms of vitamin A deficiency. (S. Cimino. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper., v. 19, p. 142, 1944.)
Lowering of vitamin C levels of the blood causes decline in riboflavin content of the liver, kidneys, and adrenals. (S. Cimino. Ibid, v. 22, p. 291, 1946.)
Carotene, or vitamin A, levels of the blood is improved by adequacy of folic acid. (Darby et al. J. Nut., v. 33, p. 243, 1947.)
Vitamin E has a sparing action on the liver storage of vitamin A. (McCoord et al. Food Tech., v. 1, p. 263, 1947. Also, upon carotene metabolism: J. Biol. Chem., v. 161, p. 367.)
Thiamin aids vitamin A in preventing or reducing skin abscesses due to prolonged vitamin A deficiency. Also, vitamin A functions as an essential factor in weight increases influenced by the presence of thiamin. (Dye et al. J. Nut., v. 33, p. 459, 1947.)
Feeding an excess of vitamin A tends to prevent or to alleviate the toxicity of excessive dosages of vitamin D. (Hendrichs et al. Am. J. Physiol., v. 149, p. 319, 1947.)
High dosage of vitamin C alone has little effect on its level in the lens of the eyes, but when riboflavin and vitamin C are administered together, the increase in vitamin C level is very marked. (Vestnik Oftalmologii, v. 26. no. 6, p. 15, 1947.)
Pyridoxine and pantothenate are coenzymes of higher fat-acid dehydrogenases. (Chem. Abs., v. 40, p. 6529; v. 42, p. 4819.)
Niacin and pyridoxine are related in the metabolism of tryptophan. (Chem. Abs., v. 42, p. 2330.)
Niacin in excess causes deficiency symptoms of other members of the B complex. (Chem. Abs., v. 43, p. 1093.)
In severe folic acid deficiency states, the lowering of niacin intake may cause sudden death. (Chem. Abs., v. 41, p. 1017.)
Folic acid may be synergistic with vitamin B12. (Chicago Med. Soc. Bull., p. 503, January 29, 1949.)
Riboflavin and folic acid function synergistically in correcting various anemias and granulocytopenia. (Arch. Biochem., v. 8, p. 3509.)
In plants, pantothenate influences their ability to synthesize niacin. (Cereal Chem., v. 24, p. 3551.)
Thiamin deficiency lowers the body’s retention of riboflavin. (J. Nut., v. 27, p. 447.)
Carotene conversion to vitamin A depends in part on adequate vitamin E. (Arch. Biochem., v. 17, p. 337.)
Riboflavin mobilization in the liver is aided by thiamin and pantothenate. (J. Biol. Chem., v. 144, p. 79.)
Pantothenate and pyridoxine are needed together for integrity of the nervous system. (J. Nut., v. 24, p. 345.)
Pantothenate in the diet aids the intestinal synthesis of inositol. (J. Exp. Med., v. 75, p. 277.)
Pantothenate functions synergistically with folic acid in preventing granulocytic anemia. (Nut. Revs., v. 4, p. 91.)
Pantothenate utilization depends, in part, on availability of biotin and folic acid. (Science, v. 97, p. 426.)
Folic acid and niacin aid each other in intestinal synthesis. (Chem. Abs., v. 41, p. 2141.)
Both vitamin A and thiamin aid in preventing excessive loss of vitamin C in metabolic processes. A thiamin deficiency aggravates a riboflavin deficiency. (Sure and Ford Jr. J. Biol. Chem., v. 146, p. 2141.)
Vitamin C and the B complex function synergistically in influencing the effect of estrogens upon female sex organs. (Karenchevsky and Hall. J. Path. Bact., v. 57, p. 141, 1945.)
Vitamin B12 acts in cooperation with choline, so that in the presence of enough choline, the need for vitamin B12 is considerably reduced. (Schaefer et al. Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med., v. 71, p. 202, 1949.)
Young animals deficient in riboflavin require 50 percent more food for adequate nourishment and adult animals 160 percent more than normal. (Nut. Revs., v. 3, p. 150.)
Value of niacin is enhanced by thiamin. (Chem. Abs., v. 38, p. 5270.)
A further review of interdependence of vitamins:
Experiments carried out on guinea pigs on scorbutogenic diet to determine effect of this diet on vitamin B2 in body. Elimination of vitamin C from diet caused vitamin B2 diminution in liver, kidneys, and adrenals. Hyper doses of vitamin C (regular diet plus ascorbic acid daily) caused more marked diminution of vitamin B2 in liver, kidneys, and adrenals. (S. Cimino. Boll. Soc. Ital. Biol. Sper., 22(504):291–3, 1946, CA 41, January 20, 1947.)
“Folic acid” may be involved in the blacktongue syndrome in dogs. Severe nicotinic acid deficiency was produced in young dogs by a synthetic ration. When folic acid as “norite eluate” was given as a supplement at a level equivalent to 1 gm of solubilized liver extract (per dog per day) routinely with the other vitamins, the dogs with severe nicotinic acid deficiency responded rapidly and consistently to a standard 25 mg dose of nicotinic acid, but in every case in which folic acid had been omitted as a supplement the dogs either died or responded poorly to the standard amount of nicotinic acid. No great differences were observed in the Hb% or white cell count of the dogs, either with or without folic acid, although the dogs receiving folic acid generally had higher white cell counts. (Krehl, W.A., and C.A. Elvehjem. Jol. Biol. Chem., 158:173–179, 1945; Biol. Abstr., 19(12540):1359, August–September 1945.)
Test animals fed 50 IUB units of B1 per day (rats) became sterile, lost maternal instinct after one generation. Manganese prevented this effect. (Land. Soil, Food, and Health, p. 61, 1949.)
From C.L. Steinberg, “Untoward Effects Resulting from the Use of Large Doses of Vitamin B1,” Am. Jol. Dig. Dis., December 1938:
“In a series of three case histories, the author was able to produce herpes by administration orally and parenterally of massive doses of B1 to the extent of up to 2,800 units.
“The three cases would seem to indicate that large doses of B1 are capable of irritating the peripheral nerve plates. Apparently, this toxic symptom occurs in a rather small percentage of cases treated with massive doses. In conclusion, however, he warns that one should be on guard in the use of this substance, and when an individual so treated begins to complain of intense burning in an unsuspected area, the administration of this vitamin should be stopped.”
From Barnett Sure, “Influence of Massive Doses of Vitamin B1 on Fertility and Lactation,” Jol. Nut., 18:187–194, 1939:
“Summary: A daily dose of 100 ug of thiamin to rats results in female sterility in the second generation. A daily dose of 200 ug of thiamin produces toxic effects in lactation in the third generation. A daily dose of 400 ug of thiamin results in entire failure in lactation in the third generation.”
A Few Facts on Vitamins
Lactose synergized with vitamin D in promoting the assimilation of calcium and its retention in child feeding tests. (One reason why other sugars are contraindicated in baby feeding.) That is why D in milk is far more effective than alone. (Jol. of Nut., 20:467, 1940.)
Cow’s milk is high in E only if in feed supplying it. Summer green feed and young grass is best. (Dr. Price’s X factor was only available from such milk.) Rats received enough vitamin E from their nursing mothers to enable them to propagate on an E free diet, showing how important it is to get an ample supply in milk. (Jol. of Nut., 20:501, 1940.)
If vitamin C is not available in adequate supply, calcium is not utilized by bone, even if plenty is available. (Salter and Aub. Arch. Path., 11:380.)
Pigeons die in a few weeks if fed white bread only. If the bread is enriched with three-tenths percent (0.3 percent) of brewer’s yeast, they survive indefinitely. (Jol. Cereal Chemistry, 9:114.)
Relation Between Cholesterol and Magnesium
Novak, E., Euchel, O., and Kapitola, J. Ustr. Biochem. Lab. FN 1 a III. Vnitrni Klin. Fak. Vseobecneho Lek., Praha. Vnitrni Lek, 7(5):525–529, 1961, graphs 4, tables 1.
In persons with normal cholesterol values, mg was within the limits of normal (mean 1.74 meq/1). In the group with high cholesterol, mg was significantly decreased (mean 1.54 meq/1.) (a statistically significant negative correlation between mg and cholesterol values). The literature is discussed. It is concluded that the proved mutual de-dependence of mg and cholesterol may play some role in the pathogenesis and in the prevention and treatment of states associated with changes of cholesterol level, especially atherosclerosis.
—Excerpta Medica, Physiology Biochemistry and Pharmacology, Vol. 15, No. 4, Section 11, April 1962.
Migraine and Meniere’s Disease
M. Atkinson. Arch Otolaryng, 75:220, March 1962.
Migraine and Meniere’s disease frequently occur in the same patient, usually in succession, sometimes together. The mechanism of both conditions is the same— vasospasm followed by vasodilation, suggesting a pathogenetic relationship. In both conditions, signs of severe chronic vitamin B deficiency are evident. Satisfactory results of intensive vitamin therapy suggest that this deficiency may be the cause of autonomic imbalance, producing vascular dysfunction. Details of treatment are given with illustrative case histories.
—J.A.M.A., March 31, 1962