By Flora L. Carl and Letha K. Jopling
Summary: During World War II, it was most important that people knew how to get more nutrition and value out of livestock. This informative, instructional document discusses the preparation and nutritional value of organs such as brains, sweetbreads (thymus and pancreas), liver, kidney, heart, pigs’ feet, tongue, and spleen. (Such organs, it’s worth noting, are richer in vitamins and minerals than muscle meat, which is why many tribal societies prized them above all). Recipes include Liver With Bacon, Kidney Stew, Bone Marrow on Toast, and Oxtail Soup. From the Missouri Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Missouri, 1943. Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research reprint 38A.[The following is a transcription of the original Archives document. To view or download the original document, click here.]
Unusual Meats: How to Prepare and Serve Them
In the slaughtering and dressing of meat animals, often some choice edible portions are not appreciated and may be laid aside until they have lost their freshness, or they may be immediately thrown away. Brain, heart, tripe, kidney, liver, sweetbreads, spleen, tongue, head, tails, and feet are good food and may well be used to add variety to the menu. In food value these meats supply good protein for muscles, as other meats do, and they also add extra minerals and vitamins, which are so essential for normal growth and good health. As a group they are usually relatively inexpensive to buy and, with the exception of the head, tail, and feet, have no bone and little waste.
The different organs vary in their contribution to a good diet. Liver contains an abundance of iron in the right form for use by the body, and it has a rich supply of vitamins A and B. Kidney is a good source of vitamins A, B, and G. Sweetbreads are a good source of vitamins A and B, and they are a delicacy that is very pleasing to those who like them. Heart and tongue are muscular organs, and their food value is very like that of lean beef.
The organs also vary in general appearance, texture, and flavor. Liver, heart, and kidney have a deep rich, dark color and a distinct flavor, while sweetbreads and brains are almost white in color and are very delicate to the taste. Kidney and liver from young animals need only the briefest cooking—just enough to heat them through—while heart, tongue, spleen, and tripe take hours of a low, moist heat-simmering to make them tender and palatable.
The organs of animals are even more perishable than the other meat, so special care must be taken to keep them very cold or to use or to can or freeze them promptly. When buying meat organs, select plump, well-rounded ones free from blemishes. When fresh, brains are a pinkish grey. Liver, heart, and kidney should have a bright color. The organs from older animals are darker in color. Beef liver is a dark, chocolate color. Calves’ liver has a purplish chocolate tinge. Beef liver is not quite as smooth in texture as calf liver.
Because of their physical structure, the organs do not naturally fall under the head of those to cook by moist or by dry heat, as muscle meats do. Most organs also require some special preparation before the cooking begins. With proper cooking, meat organs can be made into dishes that the average person will enjoy. It is important to make them look good as well as taste good and to serve them piping hot or very cold.
The brains of calf, lamb, pork, mutton, and beef are good foods and should be used. They are very tender. They are usually soaked in cold water and then simmered for about 15 minutes in salted, acidulated water (1 tsp. salt and  tbsp. vinegar to 1 qt. water). This precooking keeps them white and makes them more firm and less perishable. If the animal was stunned before slaughtering, the brain may have clotted blood; this should be carefully washed away in cold water. The thin membrane covering the brain should be removed as soon as the brain is taken from the head. After precooking, the brain should be divided into suitable pieces and either broiled or dipped in a batter or in egg and then in crumbs and fried in deep fat. They may also be served in a cream sauce [or] a tomato sauce or with a very sharp or tart sauce or salad dressing. They may be made into croquettes or scrambled with eggs.
Sweetbreads are the thymus glands of beef, calf, or Iamb. They consist of two parts and are located on either side of the throat. This thymus gland gradually disappears as the animal matures. The two parts are the heart and throat-—the throat, or long, part is usually preferred to the round, or heart, part. Like brains, sweetbreads are tender and very perishable. After they are washed, they should be simmered in salted water for about 20 minutes and allowed to cool in this liquid. When [they are] cold, remove the skin and tough membrane; this leaves tender, lobe-shaped pieces of white meat with a delicate flavor. These lobes may be cut in desirable pieces, dipped in butter and broiled, braised, dipped in batter or egg and fried in a deep fat, or they may be baked, creamed, or used in a salad.
Beef, calf, lamb, and hog liver vary considerably in price, but all are edible and can be prepared in tasty ways. Calves’ liver is more tender and delicate in flavor than liver from other animals. Beef liver is very like calf’s liver but not as tender or delicate in flavor. Pork liver contains more connective tissue and is slightly bitter and strong in flavor, but it does contain more available iron than the calf or beef liver. The livers from all well-fed animals are very excellent sources of iron and of vitamin A, and they are also good to excellent in the vitamin B complex. The flavor of liver is stronger from older animals than from younger ones. To remove strong flavor, cover the sliced liver with boiling water to which 1 teaspoon of vinegar for each cup of water has been added. Let it stand for 5 minutes, drain, and then broil. A certain amount of water-soluble material is lost in this process, but it makes a product rather like calf liver in flavor from strong beef or pork liver.
The outside membrane of liver, connective tissue, and large blood vessels should be removed from liver before the cooking process begins. Liver may be left in large pieces and baked, sliced and broiled, [and] braised or fried, or it may be ground. If liver is to be ground or chopped, it should be simmered a few minutes first for easy handling. This ground liver, wrapped in bacon and broiled or made into sandwich spread or a liver loaf, is very acceptable. Sliced pork or beef liver is often more acceptable if marinated or [allowed to] stand in a French dressing. Whatever method of cooking liver is used, it is important to remember liver is a delicate meat and that too long cooking at too high a temperature will harden it and destroy its flavor.
The kidneys from veal, lamb, pig, and beef may be used. Beef kidney is much the larger and is preferred by most people. Wash the kidneys and remove the outer membrane. Split through the center or cut and remove the fat, blood vessels, and connective tissues. The flavor of kidney may be lessened by simmering in water, draining, and repeating this process; however, this does remove water-soluble food materials also. Some prefer allowing the kidneys to sit in French dressing an hour or so before cooking them.
Kidney stew, kidney pie, and broiled kidneys are famous dishes of long standing. They may also be braised or broiled. [As for] liver, care needs to be taken to avoid overcooking them or using too high a temperature.
Calf, lamb, and pig hearts are more tender and smaller than those from beef or mutton. All have received considerable exercise and so are less tender than other organs. A lamb heart will serve one or two persons, a pork or a calf heart two or three persons, and a beef heart four or five persons. Hearts should be split, carefully washed to remove blood and the gristle and larger veins, and arteries cut away. Hearts should be cooked with moist heat. It will require from 3 to 4 hours of simmering to cook a beef heart. The heart should be allowed to cool in the liquid in which it was cooked. Hearts may be baked, braised, pickled, or used in stews, ground, or used as lean meat in any recipe. Often the heart is stuffed with savory dressing before it is baked or braised. It may be sliced and served with horseradish sauce or other meat dressing.
Beef tongues are particularly desirable because of their size. They are larger than pork or lamb but no better in flavor. Veal tongue is not as good in flavor as either of the others. The tongue should be well scrubbed before cooking, and the heavy skin and roots removed after simmering until tender. It takes from 2 to 3 hours to cook a tongue. A few seasonings [such] as bay leaf, peppercorn, white cloves, and a little onion are often added to the water in which the tongue is simmered. Tongue may be sliced and served hot or cold. It is often spiced or added to a stew, or it may be braised.
Tripe is the muscular inner lining of the stomach of meat animals. Honeycomb tripe, which is the lining of the second stomach of the beef, is usually preferred. The paunch, or the first stomach, of the beef is by far the largest and has a velvet-like lining. Slit the stomach, wash thoroughly, scald, and scrape until the inner surface has a clean white appearance. Cover with water and simmer until tender, 3 or 4 hours. Let the tripe cool in the broth. It may then be pickled by adding equal parts of vinegar and water and any desired spice, or it may be cut and broiled, dipped in batter or flour and fried, creamed, or made into soup.
Wash the spleen and remove the thin outer skin and fat. Cover with water and simmer until tender—2 or 3 hours. Let it cool in the broth. Cut into cubes and make into a stew or braise it.
The Bones and Bony Pieces
The head, feet, and tails have considerable bone but also considerable meat and gelatin and are very rich in flavor. If the animal is properly dressed, these portions are not difficult to prepare, and they offer a way to provide variety in the meals. When meat is boned, these bones may well be crushed or cut into pieces and simmered, the broth strained, and the marrow and bits of meat removed. The broth and meat may well be canned for soup, sauces, or congealed salads. Oxtails, pigs’ feet, and hogs’ heads have many uses.
Brains and Scrambled Eggs
Simmer 1 pound of brains for about 15 minutes and allow them to cool in the broth. Drain the brains, cut into small pieces, and brown in 2 tablespoons of fat. In the meantirne, beat 4 eggs with 1/2 cup of milk and pour into the pan containing the browned brains. Cook slowly, stirring constantly, until the mixture thickens. Do not overcook. Season to taste with salt and pepper. Serve on a hot platter. Garnish with parsley.
Drain the cooked and cooled brains and separate into fairly large pieces. Dip them into a beaten egg diluted with 1 tablespoon of water, sprinkle with salt and pepper, then roll in finely sifted breadcrumbs and fry slowly in fat. Serve hot. Tomato sauce is good with breaded brains.
Drain the cooked and cooled brains. Cut into fairly small pieces, sprinkle lightly with salt and flour, brown delicately in fat; then remove the browned pieces from the pan. To make sauce, blend 2 to 3 tablespoons of flour with the drippings in the pan, stir in 1 to 2 cups of liquid—the liquor in which the brains were precooked and milk, cream, or broth—and cook until smooth. Serve the brains and sauce on toast or in patty shells or with waffles. If desired, add chopped parsley or paprika.
Wash the sweetbreads. Whether the sweetbreads are to be broiled, fried, creamed, or used in salad, simmer them for about 20 minutes in salted water to cover, then allow them to cool in the liquor. Remove the skin and tough membranes, leaving tender, lobe-shaped pieces of delicate flavor. Save the broth.
Keep the cooked lobes whole, place them in a shallow pan, pour over them melted fat, and brown on all sides in the broiler or in a heavy skillet. Sprinkle the sweetbreads with salt and serve on a hot platter with a border of parsley and lemon slices.
Cut the cooked lobes of the sweetbreads into small pieces. Sprinkle with salt and flour, brown lightly in fat, and remove the browned pieces from the pan. To make sauce, blend 2 to 3 tablespoons of flour with the drippings in the pan, stir in 1 to 2 cups of liquid—the liquor in which the sweetbreads were cooked and milk, cream, or broth—and cook until smooth. Serve the sauce over the sweetbreads, on toast or in patty shells.
Sweetbreads in Salad
Cut cooked sweetbreads into small pieces and mix with chopped celery and salad dressing. Serve on crisp lettuce.
Liver Fried with Bacon
Lay strips of bacon in a cold or moderately hot frying pan and cook slowly, turning frequently. As soon as the bacon is done, drain on paper to take up the fat and keep hot.
Sprinkle slices of liver with salt and flour and cook in the bacon fat at moderate heat until the liver is lightly browned. Serve surrounded by the crisp bacon on a hot platter.
Liver Baked In Sour Cream
1 1/2 lb. liver, sliced
1/8 lb. salt pork
1/4 tsp. pepper
1 cup sour cream
1 tsp. salt
Place liver and salt pork in layers in a deep baking dish or casserole and add salt [and pepper]. Pour over it the sour cream and bake in moderate oven (325ºF) until tender—about 1 1/2 hours for veal and 2 hours for beef or pork liver.
When done, remove from dish, thicken liquid in the pan with flour, adding milk or stock to thin if necessary, and season. Place sliced liver on a deep platter, pour gravy over the meat, and serve with a border of mashed potatoes. Six servings.
Baked Liver with Gooseberries
2 lb. liver (in one piece)
1 tbsp. butter
2 bay leaves
1/4 tsp. salt
1 1/2 cups canned or cooked gooseberries
3 slices lemon
Soak liver in cold, salted water for thirty minutes or until the blood is removed. Take off outside skin, or [the] membrane that covers the liver, if it is tough. Place liver in a baking dish or a pan with a cover. Add salt, bay leaves, and cloves and dot over with butter. Pour over all the gooseberries and place the slices of lemon on top.
Bake in a moderate oven (350ºF) until the liver is well done. For this amount, the cooking time will be from 1 1/2 to 2 hours.
Liver Scalloped with Potatoes
Sprinkle 1 lb. sliced liver with salt and flour. Brown lightly in fat and cut into small pieces. Pare and slice 6 or 7 medium-size potatoes. Put a layer of the potatoes into a greased baking dish, sprinkle with salt, add some of the liver together with a few slices of onion, and continue until all are used, making the top layer potatoes. Cover with milk, put on a lid, and bake for about an hour in a moderate oven (350ºF) or until the potatoes are tender. At the last, remove the lid and allow the potatoes to brown on top.
Cooked rice, macaroni, or noodles may be used instead of potatoes.
Liver and Noodle Loaf
1 lb. or 1 pt. canned liver
Amount of noodles made with 1 egg or 1/2 pkg. (sic)
1 c. cream
1 tbsp. melted butter
1 tsp. salt
1 green pepper
Cook noodles 20 minutes in boiling salted water. Cook fresh liver or drain the canned liver and put the liver through a food chopper or chop fine. Beat eggs; add liver, noodles, butter, cream, and seasonings. Bake in buttered baking dish 45 minutes in a slow oven—300ºF.
Braised Liver with Vegetables
1 lb. fresh or canned pork liver
2 tbsp. flour
3/4 tsp. salt
1/8 tsp. pepper
4 tbsp. fat
1 c. corn
6 pared potatoes, sliced 1/4-inch thick
2 or 3 onions, sliced
1 c. tomato juice
1 c. boiling water
Cut liver into 2-inch squares. Dredge with flour and add salt. Brown in fat in a heavy pan. Remove from pan. Put corn, potatoes, and onion into pan. Brown slightly. Add liver, tomato juice, and boiling water to vegetables. Cover and simmer gently on top of the stove until tender. Thicken gravy, if desired.
Simmer the liver in water until tender. Mash, grind, or chop fine the cooked liver and mix with fat and seasoning—using 2 tablespoons each of chili sauce or catsup, chopped celery, and fat to 1 cup of ground liver. Add salt to taste. Or grind 1/2 cup of onion and 1 cup of liver and add some crisp, broken bacon and salad dressing, parsley, green pepper, or sweet pickle.
Select calf or lamb kidneys for broiling. Wash kidneys, remove the outer membrane, split through the center, and cut out the fat, blood vessels, and connective tissue. When ready to cook, dip the kidneys in melted fat, lay the pieces in a shallow pan, and broil for 10 to 20 minutes, turning for even cooking. Sprinkle broiled kidneys with salt and serve on toast on a hot platter. Garnish with parsley and thin slices of lemon.
Cut the prepared kidneys into thin slices. Dredge with flour and brown in small amount of fat. Add an equal amount of chopped green pepper and celery. Add a small amount of water and simmer until tender. Serve piping hot on buttered toast.
Wash kidney, cut out the fat, blood vessels, and connective tissue. Cover with cold water and heat slowly to boiling. Discard the water if there is a strong odor. Add fresh water and simmer until the kidneys are tender. Remove the kidneys and cut into small pieces. Cook one or two diced potatoes and one chopped onion until tender. Pour off the liquid and measure it. For each cup, allow about 1/2 tbsp. flour for thickening. Blend the flour with an equal quantity of fat and add the liquid gradually, with constant stirring, over low heat. To this sauce add the potatoes, onions, and kidney. Season to taste with salt and pepper and, if desired, chopped parsley and lemon juice. Serve piping hot with a crisp, tart salad.
6 thick slices of tomato
1 beef kidney or 3 pairs lamb or pork kidneys
Cut beef kidney in six pieces (split open each lamb or pork kidney) and remove the white tubes and fat. Melt fat in iron frying pan and add slices of tomato. Arrange kidneys on top of each slice. Place a square piece of bacon over each kidney and broil until tender. Remove from under flame, cover, and simmer over fire for a few minutes. Arrange on a platter. Pour melted butter mixed with lemon juice and parsley over each serving.
Braised Stuffed Heart
Select 1 beef heart or 2 or 3 calf hearts. Wash and slit the heart, remove gristle and blood vessels. Simmer beef heart one or more hours. For the stuffing, chop an onion and a stalk of celery and cook in 2 tablespoons of fat; add 2 to 3 cups of soft breadcrumbs and season to taste with salt, pepper, and thyme.
Fill heart with the stuffing; sew up the slit. Brown the heart on all sides in fat, place it in a baking dish or casserole, add 1/2 cup of water, cover closely, and cook until tender in a very moderate oven (about 300ºF). A beef heart will require 2 or 3 hours. A calf or a hog heart will cook tender in much shorter time—about 1 1/2 hours. Make gravy of the drippings.
Sweet Sour Pickled Heart
To 1 cup of the broth in which the heart was cooked, add 2 tablespoons vinegar, 2 tablespoons brown sugar, 1 tablespoon molasses, 1/4 teaspoon cinnamon, 1 teaspoon pickle spice, and 1/8 teaspoon mustard. Boil the mixture for a few minutes, then add 2 cups diced cooked heart and simmer until hot throughout. Season to taste with salt. Serve hot or chill and serve cold.
Baked Heart with Apples
Wash heart and remove clotted blood. Roll in flour and sear in hot fat. Place in a covered baking dish and add water. Sprinkle with brown sugar, butter, cloves and salt. Bake 2 or 3 hours or until almost tender. Surround with quartered apples and bay leaves. A few slices of stuffed olives and four slices of lemon may be added. Bake slowly or let simmer until heart and apples are tender.
If using a fresh tongue, wash, cover with water, [and] add an onion, a sprig of parsley, a bay leaf, several whole black peppercorns or whole cloves, and salt. Simmer (do not boil) for 2 1/2 to 3 hours or until the meat is tender. Skin the tongue, slice, and serve hot or allow it to cool in the liquid after skinning and serve cold.
1 beef tongue
1 large onion
1 tbsp. white cloves
2 bay leaves
2 tbsp. gelatin
Scrub tongue and cover with water. Add sliced onion, cloves, salt, pepper, and bay leaves. Simmer in a covered pan until very tender, keeping amount of water to 3 or 4 cups. Remove the skin and trim root end. Place in mold large enough to hold tongue. Strain liquor and dissolve gelatin in it. Vinegar may be substituted for part of the liquor if desired. Pour this in the mold. When set, chill, turn out on a platter, and serve in slices at the table.
Cover cooked tongue with a hot solution consisting of 3 cups of vinegar and 1 cup of water to which 1 bay leaf, 6 cloves, salt, and pepper have been added.
Philadelphia Pepper Pot
1 large soup bone
1 onion, chopped
1 bay leaf
1 stalk celery, chopped
1/4 tsp. savory seasoning
1/4 pod red pepper
2 raw potatoes, diced
1/4 lb. cooked tripe, ground or finely diced
Chopped parsley, if desired
Simmer a beef bone or knuckle of veal in water to cover for 3 to 4 hours. Pour off the broth, skim the fat from it, and strain through cheesecloth. This should make about 3 pints of well-flavored broth. To the broth add the onion, bay leaf, celery, savory, and red pepper and simmer for about an hour. Then add the potatoes and cook until tender. Add the tripe and season with salt and pepper. Serve hot with chopped parsley on top.
Cut tripe into individual portions; salt, simmer until tender, and drain. Brush with fat and broil 5 minutes under flame or in pan. Serve each portion with a strip of crisp bacon.
Cut tripe into small pieces, dip in salted flour or batter, and fry in deep fat or pan. To make the batter, combine 1 cup flour, 1/2 cup milk, 1 egg, and 1 tablespoon butter.
Salt Pork Gravy with Tripe
4 cups milk
3 tbsp. flour
1/2 cup salt pork, diced
2 cups small pieces tripe, cooked
Fry pork until crisp; add the flour. When slightly brown, add the milk and cook until thick and [then] pour the sauce over the tripe. Serve hot with boiled potatoes.
4 cups diced cooked spleen
1 onion, chopped
2 tbsp. fat
2 tbsp. flour
1 cup spleen broth
1 cup water
Salt and pepper to taste
1/4 tsp. thyme
1/4 tsp. celery seed
Select a beef spleen or 5 or 6 pork spleens. Wash spleen and remove the thin outer skin and fat. Put spleen on to cook in water to cover and simmer until tender. Beef spleen will probably require 3 hours, and pork spleen [will take] 2 hours. If possible, let the meat cook in the broth. Cut the cooked spleen into inch cubes.
Cook the onion in the fat for a few minutes, then add the flour and stir until blended. Gradually add the spleen broth and water, stirring constantly, over low heat and cook until smooth, Season to taste with salt and pepper and, if desired, add the thyme and celery seed. Lastly, add the cooked spleen and heat thoroughly. Serve piping hot.
Bone Marrow on Toast
Saw bones with marrow into sections 2 to 3 inches long. Over each open end, put a covering of flour-and-water dough and tie in a piece of cloth. Put the pieces of marrow bone into a kettle and pour on boiling water to cover. Boil for an hour, then remove the cloth and dough and serve the sections of bone marrow piping hot on pieces of crisp toast. Marrow cooked in this way is very light in color and delicate in flavor and texture.
2 or 3 oxtails
1 qt. diced vegetables
Salt and pepper to taste
Wash the tails and cut into short lengths. Brown the pieces in fat, put them into a large kettle, cover with water, add a bay leaf, and simmer until the meat is tender enough to fall off the bones. Strain off the broth and to it add diced vegetables, such as a mixture of onion a, carrots, turnips, and potatoes, and cook slowly until the vegetables are tender but not broken. Chop up the meat and serve in the soup. Season to taste.
Pickled Pigs’ Feet
4 pigs’ feet
1 qt. vinegar
1 tbsp. whole cloves
4 bay leaves
1 stick cinnamon
1/4 cup salt
2 tsp. pepper
1 small onion
Scrub the feet thoroughly and cover with boiling water. Let simmer until the meat begins to fall from the bones. Place the pigs’ feet in an earthenware or granite container. Combine the vinegar, cloves, bay leaves, cinnamon, salt, pepper and sliced onion and simmer. Add to this one pint to one quart of the water in which the pigs’ feet were cooked. Strain to remove the spices and pour over the feet. Set away in a cold place for two days or longer.
Pigs’ Knuckles and Sauerkraut
Wash and scrape pigs’ knuckles and simmer in water to cover for about 2 hours or until tender. Then add sauerkraut to the broth and cook just long enough to make it tender. Season to taste with salt, pepper, and celery or caraway seed.
Headcheese is made from meat from the head and other bony pieces. The heart, tongue, spleen, and other organs are sometimes added. Make deep cuts in any thick pieces of meat, cover with water, and simmer until the meat is well done and slips easily from the bones. The skin, if used, should be cooked in a net or sack so that it may be removed when so tender that a finger can be pushed through it. The thick ears will require longer cooking than the other skin. The skin is ground with the plate having 1/8-inch holes. The head and other pieces are boned after being cooked. These, [along] with the boneless pieces such as the heart, are ground with a plate that has 1/2-inch holes. Some people prefer to cut the tongue and some of the larger pieces of fat into strips instead of grinding them.
The finely ground skin and coarsely ground pieces are then mixed with enough of the soup—the water in which the meat was cooked—to make the mass soft without being sloppy. This mixture is returned to the kettle and brought to a good boil. This reheating serves to mix the gelatin thoroughly throughout the soup so that when the headcheese is poured into shallow pans and chilled, it will slice without crumbling.
Seasoning is added at the beginning of the second cooking. Usually it is safe to season to taste, though the following quantities of seasoning for each gallon of cooked meat, including the added soup, are a satisfactory guide:
3 to 4 tbsp. salt
1 to 2 tsp. pepper
1 tsp. ground cloves, if desired
1 tsp. coriander, if desired
2 tsp. sweet marjoram, if desired
Select 3 pounds of bony pieces of pork. Simmer in 3 quarts of water until the meat drops from the bone. Strain off the broth, remove the bones, taking care to get out all the tiny pieces, and chop the meat fine. There should be about 2 quarts of broth, and if necessary add water to make this quantity. Bring the broth to the boiling point, slowly stir in 2 cups of corn meal or 3 cups of cracked wheat, and cook for about 30 minutes, stirring frequently. Add the chopped meat, salt, and any other seasoning such as a little sage or thyme. Pour the hot scrapple into bread pans that have been rinsed with cold water. Let stand until cold and firm. Slice about 1/2 inch thick and brown slowly in a hot skillet. If the scrapple is rich with fat, no more fat is needed for frying.
By Flora L. Carl and Letha K. Jopling. Reprinted by the Lee Foundation for Nutritional Research from the Missouri Agricultural Extension Service, College of Agriculture, University of Missouri, Circular 483, January 1943. University of Missouri College of Agriculture and the United States Department of Agriculture cooperating. J.W. Burch, Director, Agricultural Extension Service. Distributed in furtherance of the acts of Congress of May 8 and June 30, 1914.
Reprint No. 38A
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Lee Foundation For Nutritional Research
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